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Referencing shows the reader of your work where the information you have used comes from. This is important because it protects you from plagiarism, shows you have carried out thorough research and allows your reader to find the sources you have read.

To reference your work successfully follow the Guide to Referencing or use the A to Z example list below.


RefWorks is software which allows you to create an online record for the resources you have used. You can then use those records to create references in the Harper style. You can now login to RefWorks via the institutional login using your Harper ID and password.

View the RefWorks YouTube channel for expert videos on how to get the best out of Refworks.

Please also take a look at the Refworks End User Training session.

Contact us for more information.

Download Referencing A to Z PDF



Every effort should be made to view the full article. However, there might be instances where the full article is not available. In these situations, it is acceptable to reference an abstract.


(Mishra et al., 2005)


Author, Date, Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number (issue number), pp. page numbers. [Online Abstract]. Name of database. Available from: url[Accessed date]

e.g. Mishra, A. Bhattachariya, S. and Samanta, G. 2005. Effects of different forms of trace minerals on the performance of exotic pigs. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 75 (6), pp.676-679. [Online Abstract]. CAB Abstracts. Available from: [Accessed 2 August 2011].

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For the sake of your word count, it is acceptable to use acronyms in your citations (in the text).

If you use an acronym in your citation it should also be used as the 'author' element of your reference. However it must be followed by the full name of the organisation (in brackets). For example, a page from the DEFRA website would be referenced: DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). 2003. The citation (in the text) would be DEFRA, 2003.


(DEFRA, 2003)

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Act of Parliament (print and online)

If you read the Act online, reference it as a print document, without the URL or [Online]

The chapter number is not required. Section numbers are entered in lower case in the citation but not the reference

Cite and reference international acts the same as UK but include country details


Name of Act Year, sections 

Landlord and Tenant Act 1988, s 9(1)(a)

International: Name of Act (Country) Year

Energy Policy Act (United States) 2005


Name of Act Year

Landlord and Tenant Act 1988

International: Name of Act (Country) Year

Energy Policy Act (United States) 2005

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The 'author' element will usually be the company whose product is being advertised. In the 'title' element include a brief description of the advertisement. If you saw the advertisement within a publication, include details of that publication.


(Abbey Forestry, 2006)


Author. Date. Description. In: Title of Journal Vol (issue), p. page number .

e.g. Abbey Forestry. 2006. Advertisement for woodland management services. In:British Farmer and Grower, (46), p. 59.

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Audio-visual material

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