Skip to main content
The Library

Guide to Referencing

Referencing shows the reader of your work where the information you have used comes from. This is important because it protects you from plagiarism, shows you have carried out thorough research and allows your reader to find the sources you have read.

To reference your work successfully use the A to Z example list below.

Note: to download this information as a PDF use Print (Ctrl+P) and change the printer to Adobe PDF/Save as PDF.

Refworks

RefWorks is software which allows you to create an online record for the resources you have used. You can then use those records to create references in the Harper style. You can now login to RefWorks via the institutional login using your Harper ID and password.

View the RefWorks YouTube channel for expert videos on how to get the best out of Refworks.

Please also take a look at the Refworks End User Training session.

Contact us for more information.

Table of contents

Loading table of contents...

Introduction

At Harper Adams we use the Harvard system of referencing, but there is no definitive version of Harvard. This guide introduces the version used at Harper Adams. Other approaches to referencing systems exist. The guide does not aim to cover every eventuality. If you follow the guidance here, you will be able to create references to sources not covered in this guide. Additional guidance is available on the library website which also includes examples of references for less common resources. If you need any help with referencing please ask your tutor, or come and see us in the library.

Definitions

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY - an alphabetical list of sources, which you have read but have not cited within the text.
  • CITATION - an acknowledgement in the text that you are referring to another person’s work.
  • PLAGIARISM - the act of passing off as your own, the words, opinions or ideas of another.
  • QUOTATION - the exact words used by another person.
  • REFERENCE - a standardised description of the source you have cited within your text. The information included in the reference enables the reader to locate the source. References appear in an alphabetical list at the end of your work.
  • SOURCE - any resource used or quoted in your work, including text books, journals, TV and radio programmes, the internet and other people.

Why bother to include citations and references?

Referencing shows the reader where your information has come from. This is important because:

  • it gives other authors credit for their work.
  • it protects you from challenges of plagiarism (for which you could fail your assignment).
  • it enables your reader to find the sources you have used.
  • it allows you to show that you have researched your topic thoroughly (thus getting you more marks).
  • it gives your arguments weight - your work has more credibility if you show that it is supported by evidence from other academics and their research.

When do I need to cite a source?

Whenever you use information from someone else you must cite it, even if you have used your own words. This includes images, figures and tables as well as text. Citations should be placed in your assignment at the point at which you refer to another person’s ideas or opinions.

You don’t need to include a citation if you are stating something that is common knowledge. This is a grey area so be careful. Pears and Shields (2008 p.12) define common knowledge as “facts, dates, events and information that are expected to be known by someone studying or working in a particular field”. As a general rule, if it is possible to attribute information to a particular person, source or organisation, include a citation.

Appendices – include references to any citations appearing in the appendices in the main list of references.

If in doubt... cite it!

Secondary referencing

This is the practice of referring to a publication you have not actually read yourself – but which has been cited in a publication you have seen. You should make every effort to read the original source. If this is not possible, it is important that you make it clear exactly what you have read. You need to do this in the text by stating X (year) cited Y (year) ... where X is the source you have read and Y is the secondary reference. For example, Sainsbury (1999) cited Thorp and Maxwell (1993) ... You should only list the source you have read in your reference list.

Sainsbury (1999) cited Thorp and Maxwell (1993)
Only reference the source you have read.

Evaluate your sources

Think carefully about the quality of all the information you use. Make sure your sources are authoritative. Be aware of any bias on the part of the author or the publisher. The publication date tells you if the information is up to date. If the source is historic consider whether it is still valid to cite in your work. If you do not know the author or publication date of a piece of information, think carefully before using it.

Wikipedia

Students should not cite Wikipedia or similar websites. Students should use these as a starting point only. They are not acceptable citations in themselves, even though they may point to an original citable source.

Lecture notes

Please only use lecture notes if you have asked your lecturer if it is permissible.

Examples of citations

Citations usually include only two elements – the surname of the author (or equivalent), and the year of the publication. These two elements must be the same as the first two elements of the reference at the end of the text. (Where the citation follows a direct quote, the page number is also included).

Citations always appear next to the statements they support.

Citations include the surname of the author and the year of publication.

Citations of multiple authors

If there are two authors (or editors) include both their names in the citation.

(Hubrecht and Kirkwood, 2010)

If there are three or more authors write the first surname in the citation followed by et al. – meaning “and others”, where et al. is in italics and al. has a full stop.

(Holmes et al., 2007)

NB: In the reference list you must include surnames and initials of all authors. Authors should be listed in the order they appear within the source.

Citations for more than one work by the same author in the same year

This is common when referencing internet sites. Differentiate between sources by using lower case alphabetical lettering.

The UK currently imports 50% of fresh fruit (DEFRA, 2009a) ...
... is described by DEFRA (2009b) as ....

If you are citing undated sources, include a space after the phrase “not dated” e.g. (MDC, not dated a).
NB: make sure you repeat the same lettering in your reference.

Differentiating between works by authors with the same surname, published in the same year

In this case include the author’s initial/s in the citation.

(Evans, L., 2010)

Citing information from multiple sources

If your information comes from more than one source, citations are in date order with the oldest source first, separated with a semi-colon, for example:

(Brown, 2004; Adams, 2007; Evans, 2007; Carter, 2013)

Citing anonymous sources

Information in sources like popular journals, newspapers, websites and pamphlets is often anonymous. For journals and newspapers use the name of the publication in place of the author’s name. For websites and pamphlets if you can identify the company or organisation responsible for the information, cite it as the author. Otherwise use Anon. (for anonymous) in place of the author.

(The Times, 2007)
(Food Ethics Council, 2007)
(Anon., 2010)

Citing undated sources (e.g. internet pages)

Some sources do not display a publication date. This is common with websites. If there is a “last updated” date on an internet page, use that as the publication date. If no date at all is shown on the source, use the phrase “not dated” instead of the year of publication.

(FSA, not dated)

Citing unpublished material (including personal communication)

Procedures differ depending on whether the information is likely to be published in the future. Sources which are likely to be published in the future include in press articles or conference papers. For sources such as these include the phrase “in press” or “unpublished” (as appropriate) in place of the year of publication.

(Clarke and Alibardi, in press)
(Fenner, unpublished)

Information that is never going to be published should not be included in your list of references (as the reader will not be able to locate it). It is still important to identify in the text that this information is not your own. Such information might be personal communication (conversations/email/letters) or information seen on a trade stand.

When referring to information that is not going to be published include details both of where you obtained the information and why the source is valid and reliable. For personal communication include the abbreviation “Pers. Comm.”.

(Smith, 2009. Pers. Comm. Mr C. Smith is the Technical Manager of Midlands Grain Ltd).
(EDF Energy, 2010. Information taken from the EDF Energy trade stand at Energy Now Expo 2010. EDF Energy is a large UK electricity producer.)

Only enter the full source description (shown above) the first time you mention the source. For any subsequent mentions, brief information such as (Smith, 2009. Pers. Comm.) or (EDF Energy, 2010. Trade stand) is sufficient.

Citing a table, figure or image

Cite the author and year of publication of the source beneath the image. Include any page numbers – preceded by p. - and precede the citation with the word “Source”.

Silhouette of a person's head"I keep all my lecture notes and articles in binders, with file dividers, according to what topic they're on. That way everything is in the right place for when I come to revise for exams or write the assignments."
(Source: Open University, not dated, p.5)

Citing information which you have adapted

If you take an image from another source and change it in any way; or change the way in which information is displayed (e.g. create a chart from a table or annotate an image), include the words “adapted from” before the citation.

Reference example

(Source: adapted from Skills for Learning, Leeds Metropolitan University, 2009, p.6)

Author’s own

Citations and references are not required for tables and figures that have been entirely created by yourself and which do not contain information from other sources. Author’s own photographs do require a citation but should not be referenced (see Reference Examples).

Acronyms

It is acceptable to use known acronyms in citations and references. If you are concerned about word count, acronyms can be used without explanation in citations. However a full explanation of what the acronym stands for must be included in the author field of every reference. (Acronyms can however be used without explanation in the publisher field of the reference).

Citation (in the text): (CLA, 2005)
Reference: CLA (Country Land & Business Association). 2005. Renewable energy – more than wind? [Online]. CLA. Available from…

Integrating citations into your text

Examples of citations

  • … (Smith, 1999).
  • Smith (1999) found that …
  • Smith (1999) stated that …
  • Smith (1999) showed that …
  • Smith (1999) investigated the …
  • Smith (1999) studied the effects of …
  • Smith (1999) carried out a number of investigations in the …
  • In 1999, Smith et al. published a paper in which they described … (if three or more authors)
  • A recent study by Smith (1999) involved …
  • A small scale study by Smith (1999) reaches different conclusions …
  • To determine the effects of x, Smith (1999) compared …
  • Smith (1999) identified …
  • Smith (1999) listed three reasons why …
  • Smith (1999) provided in-depth analysis of work …
  • Smith (1999) discussed the challenges and strategies for …
  • Smith (1999) questioned whether …

(Source: adapted from The University of Manchester, 2005)

A direct quotation – including quoting from legislation

If you are quoting directly use quotation marks, either integrated into the paragraph for a short quotation, or separate and indented for three or more quoted lines. Include the surname, year of publication and page number(s), preceded by p. for a single page or pp. for multiple pages, immediately after the quotation. (NB. If you are quoting from legislation use section numbers rather than page numbers – e.g. Environment Act 1995, s61 (1) ). When the quotation is integrated into a sentence, “the full stop is placed outside the quotation marks and immediately following the citation” (Bloggs, 2010, p.6). However, when quoting entire sentences, the full stop goes before the end quotation marks, followed by the citation, as in the following example:

“Quotations should be relevant to your argument and used judiciously in your text. Excessive use of quotations can disrupt the flow of your writing and prevent the reader from following the logic of your reasoning.” (Pears and Shields, 2008, p 16).

References – what details do you need?

A reference list provides descriptions of the sources you have cited within your text. The reference list allows the person marking your work to consider the strength and depth of the evidence you have used and so give an indication of the quality of your work. The information included in each reference enables the reader to locate the works you have cited. The reference list must include references for every citation in the text. References are listed in alphabetical order (by author/editor) at the end of your work. (NB. The Word A to Z tool can quickly sort lists into alphabetical order).

When researching a topic record details of all the sources you consult. You will need details of the following information:

Author(s)/editor(s)

The surname and initials of every author/editor or organisation connected with the work - if there isn’t one listed use Anon or for journal and newspaper articles use the name of the publication. For websites and pamphlets you may use the name of the organisation responsible. Multiple authors should be listed in the order in which they appear on the source.

Title of publication

The title of the source that you have used (remember with journals and some edited books you will also need the title of the article or chapter).

Edition

For book references include the edition – unless it is the 1st.

Year of publication

This is the year the source was published (remember if there is no date use the phrase not dated).

Place of publication

References include the place in which a work was published. (You do not need this for references to journals). If there are several places listed, choose the one in the UK.

Publisher

Your reference should also include the publisher of the source – although you don’t need this for references to journals. NB: with websites it is common for this to be the same as the author. If there are multiple publishers, only include the first.

Volume & issue numbers

If your source has volume and issue numbers (e.g. journals and multi-volume texts), you will need to include them in your reference.

Page numbers

If you have consulted a journal, chapter in an edited book or conference paper, include the relevant page numbers.

URLs

For electronic sources (e.g. websites) you will need the URL of the source. NB. If you have accessed a number of different pages within a site, and each page has a different URL, you will need a separate reference for each page.

Date you accessed the material

This is only necessary for electronic sources – as electronic information changes on a regular basis, your source may differ by the time the reader accesses the page – it is therefore important to list the date you accessed the information.

Compiling References

References follow a regular, logical pattern made up of set elements. Elements appear in a set order. There are typographical rules for the different elements of the reference which must be followed. Once you understand these rules you should be able to compile references for all the sources you need.

Most references to print sources include:

  • An author – or equivalent (e.g. editor). If no author is given use the company or organisation responsible, or Anon.
  • A publication date – If no date is given use “not dated”. If the item is likely to be published in the future use “in press” (for journal articles) or “unpublished”
  • A publication title. This should always appear in italics
  • A place of publication
  • A publisher

Author (surname, initials). Year. Publication title (in italics). Place of publication (followed by colon): Publisher.
Reynolds, J. 2010. E-business – a management perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Most references to online sources include:

  • An author – or equivalent (e.g. organisation responsible for the website)
  • A year of publication – online sources might show this as a copyright or “last updated” date
  • A title
  • [Online]
  • A “publisher” – i.e. Organisation responsible for the site
  • Available from: URL
  • Accessed date

Author. Year. Title (in italics). [Online]. Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].
ADAS. 2007. An independent evidence baseline for farm health planning in England. [Online]. DEFRA. Available from: http://www.defra.gov.uk/foodfarm/policy/animalhealth/documents/fhp.pdf [Accessed 22 July 2010].

For print and online journals where the content is exactly the same these are referenced as print sources and therefore will not require a URL link. See Referencing Examplea. For e-books with full publication details (place of publication, publisher) follow print books example – no URL link is required.

Example reference list

References   Type

Allen, C. 2013. Information and uncertainty in meerkats and monkeys. In: Stegman, U.E.ed. Animal communication theory: information and influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp.319-335.

- Chapter in an edited book

Belz, F. and Peattie, K.2013. Sustainability marketing: a global perspective. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley.

- Book with edition

Cadbury. 2009. Focused on performance: delivering against our plan annual report and accounts 2008. Uxbridge: Cadbury.

- Annual report

EBLEX (English Beef and Lamb Executive). Not dated. BRP controlling sheep lameness. [DVD]. Kenilworth: EBLEX.

- No year of publication

Farm Animal Voice. 2008. Proud to be a pig? Autumn, pp.8–10.

- No author – journal

Ferguson, N.S., Arnold, G.A., Lavers, G. and Gous, R.M.2000a. The response of growing pigs to amino acids as influenced by environmental temperature. 1. Threonine. Animal Science, 70 (2), pp.287-297.

Ferguson, N.S., Arnold, G.A., Lavers, G. and Gous, R.M.2000b. The response of growing pigs to amino acids as influenced by environmental temperature. 2. Lysine. Animal Science, 70(2), pp.299-306.

- References contain all authors (Use ‘a’ and ‘b’ to differentiate between items with same author and date)

Gallent, N. 1997. The alternative route to affordable housing provision: experiences in rural Wales. Journal of Rural Studies, 13 (1), pp.43-56.

Gallent, N. 2008. Rural housing – reaching the parts that other policies cannot reach. Town and Country Planning, 77 (3), pp.122-5.

- List items by the same author in date order

Henten, E.J. van, Goense, E. and Lokhorst, C.eds.2009. Precision agriculture ’09: papers presented at the 7th European Conference on Precision Agriculture Wageningen, the Netherlands 6-8 July 2009. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

- Conference proceedings

Kakaire, S. 2012. Integrated management of cyst nematodes in oilseed rape: A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Harper Adams. Newport: Harper Adams University College.

- Thesis

Manning, L. and Soon, J.M. 2013. GAP framework for fresh produce supply. British Food Journal, 115 (6), pp.796-820.

- Print and online journal with same content

Shropshire Tourism. Not dated. Much Wenlock. [Online]. Shropshire Tourism. Available from: http://www.shropshiretourism.co.uk/much-wenlock/ [Accessed 28 July 2010].

- Internet page

Smith, R. G., Atwood, L. W. and Warren, N. D. 2014. Increased productivity of a cover crop mixture is not associated with enhanced agroecosystem services. Plos One, 9 (5), pp.796-820. [Online]. Plos One. Available from: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0097351[Accessed 12 August 2014].

- Online only journal or online journals which differ from the print

Verhaeghe, J. and Alsasri, R. 2008. Good hygiene practice on dairy farms.In: Lam, T.J.G.M. ed. Mastitis control from science to practice proceedings of international conference 30 September - 2 October 2008, the Hague, the Netherlands. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers. p.89.

- Conference pape

Download Referencing A to Z PDF

Referencing Examples A to Z

Abstract

Every effort should be made to view the full article. However, there might be instances where the full article is not available. In these situations, it is acceptable to reference an abstract.

Citation

(Mishra et al., 2005)

Reference

Author, Date, Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number (issue number), pp. page numbers. [Online Abstract]. Name of database. Available from: url[Accessed date]

e.g. Mishra, A. Bhattachariya, S. and Samanta, G. 2005. Effects of different forms of trace minerals on the performance of exotic pigs. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences, 75 (6), pp.676-679. [Online Abstract]. CAB Abstracts. Available from: http://cababstracts.edina.ac.uk [Accessed 2 August 2011].

Email me this example

Acronyms

For the sake of your word count, it is acceptable to use acronyms in your citations (in the text).

If you use an acronym in your citation it should also be used as the 'author' element of your reference. However it must be followed by the full name of the organisation (in brackets). For example, a page from the DEFRA website would be referenced: DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs). 2003. The citation (in the text) would be DEFRA, 2003.

Citation

(DEFRA, 2003)

Email me this example

Act of Parliament (print and online)

If you read the Act online, reference it as a print document, without the URL or [Online]

The chapter number is not required. Section numbers are entered in lower case in the citation but not the reference

Cite and reference international acts the same as UK but include country details

Citation

Name of Act Year, sections 

Landlord and Tenant Act 1988, s 9(1)(a)

International: Name of Act (Country) Year

Energy Policy Act (United States) 2005

Reference

Name of Act Year

Landlord and Tenant Act 1988

International: Name of Act (Country) Year

Energy Policy Act (United States) 2005

Email me this example

The 'author' element will usually be the company whose product is being advertised. In the 'title' element include a brief description of the advertisement. If you saw the advertisement within a publication, include details of that publication.

Citation

(Abbey Forestry, 2006)

Reference

Author. Date. Description. In: Title of Journal Vol (issue), p. page number .

e.g. Abbey Forestry. 2006. Advertisement for woodland management services. In:British Farmer and Grower, (46), p. 59.

Email me this example

Apps
Audio-visual material
Bills (print and online)

If you read the Bill onlne, reference it as a print doucment, without the URL or [Online].

No author is required for bills. References to bills include: Title of bill (in normal font, no italics) name of house in which it originated the parliamentary session in brackets and the running number assigned to it. Running numbers for House of Commons bills appear in square brackets; those for House of Lords bills do not.

Citation

House of Lords Bill (Wind Turbines (Minimum Distance from Residential Premises) HL Bill)

House of Commons Bill (Land Value Tax HC Bill)

Reference

Title of the bill (in normal font, no italics) name of the house in which it originated the parliamentary session in brackets and the running number assigned to it.

Reference to a House of Lords Bill:

Wind Turbines (Minimum Distance from Residential Premises) HL Bill (2012-13) 11

 

Reference to a House of Commons Bill:

Land Value Tax HC Bill (2012-13) [45].

Email me this example

Blog

Citation

(Newton, 2007)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. Date. [Online]. "Publisher". Available from: url. [Accessed date].

eg. Newton, A. 2007. Wikipedia a resource for learning and teaching? 15 March. [Online]. University of Leeds. Available from: elgg.leeds.ac.uk/sierk/weblog/5114.html [Accessed 1 May 2011].

Email me this example

Book - chapter in edited book (print and online that have full publication details)

References should include information about the author and title of the chapter as well as the normal information needed for an edited book. Don’t forget the page numbers, preceded by pp., after the publisher information.

E-books should be referenced in the same manner as a print book if full publication details are provided, no URL/webpage link is required.

Citation

(Allen, 2013)

Reference

Author of chapter. Year. Title of chapter. In: Editor of book. ed. Title of book. Edition (if not 1st). Place of publication: Publisher. pp. page numbers.

Allen, C. 2013. Information and uncertainty in meerkats and monkeys. In: Stegman, U.E. ed. Animal communication theory: information and influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 319-335.

Email me this example

Book with an editor (print and online that have full publication details)

Some edited books name only an editor. References to these books follow the normal rules for printed sources. Remember to include ed.after the editor's name.

E-books should be referenced in the same manner as a print book if they have full publication details (including publisher and place of publication).

Citation

(Schaer, 2003)

Reference

Editor. ed. Year. Title of book. Edition (if not 1st). Place of publication: Publisher. 

Schaer, M. ed. 2003. Clinical medicine of the dog and cat. London: Manson.

Email me this example

Book with author (print and online that have full publication details)

E-books that have full publication details (including publisher and place of publication) should be referenced as print books. No URL/Webpage is required, reference as if viewing a print book..

Citation

(Belz and Peattie, 2013)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. Edition (if not 1st). Place of Publication: Publisher

Belz, F. and Peattie, K. 2013. Sustainability marketing: a global perspective. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley.

Email me this example

British Standard (print and online)

See also International Standard (print and online)

The 'author' of a British Standard is always British Standards Institution. The title should include the BSI number.

Citation

(BSI, 2008)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

BSI (British Standards Institution). 2008. BS31100: Risk management - code of practice. London: BSI.

Email me this example

Command paper and white paper

The 'author element' for command papers is the relevant department e.g. DEFRA (Department for Food, Environment and Rural Affairs).  The paper number, in brackets, follows the title.

If you read a Command or White Paper online, reference it as a print document, without the URL or [Online].

Citation

(DEFRA, 2000)

Reference

AuthorDate. Title. (paper number ) Place of publication: Publisher.

DEFRA (Department for Food, Environment and Rural Affairs). 2000. The final report of the Committee of Inquiry into hunting with dogs in England and Wales. (Cm. 4763). London: The Stationery Office.

Email me this example

Conference paper (as PDF)

Occasionally, conference papers appear independently online as pdfs. In this case, reference the paper as an internet page with details of both the conference paper and the conference as your 'title' in italics.

Citation

(Farrell, 2008)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of paper and conference details. [Online]. “Publisher”. Available from: url [Accessed date].

Farrell, T.C. 2008. An economic evaluation of conservation farming practices for the Central West of NSW. Presented at the 52nd Annual Conference of the Australian

Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, 5-8 February 2008, Canberra.  [Online]. AgEcon search. Available from: http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/6177/2/cp08fa28.pdf  [Accessed 24 July 2013].

Email me this example

Conference paper (poster session)

Conference presented in a poster session

Citation

(Rose et al.,  2014)

Reference

Rose, W. J., Sargeant, J.M., Kelton, D.F. and Henna, W.J.B.  2014.  A scoping review of the evidence for efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals. Poster presented at the  1st International Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine Network Conference, London, 23-24 October 2014[Online]. RCVS. Available from: http://knowledge.rcvs.org.uk/document-library/ebvm-2014-conference-poster-a-scoping-review-of-the-evidence/a-scoping-review-of-the-evidence-for-efficacy-of-acupuncture-in-companion-animals-poster-.pdf [Accessed 20 April 2016].

Email me this example

Conference paper (single)

See also Unpublished material

If you have consulted a paper from a conference, rather than the whole proceedings, cite and reference only that paper – as you would a chapter from an edited book. Remember the page numbers at the end of your reference (preceded by pp.)

Citation

(Verhaege and Alsasri, 2008)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of paper. In: Editor. ed. Title of conference including place and full dates. Place of publication: Publisher. pp. page numbers.

Verhaeghe, J. and Alsasri, R. 2008. Good hygiene practice on dairy farms. In: T.J.G.M. Lam. ed. Mastitis control from science to practice: proceedings of international conference 30 September  - 2 October 2008, the Hague, the Netherlands.  Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers. p.89.

Email me this example

Conference paper (whole proceedings)

See also Conference paper (single) or Unpublished material

If you have used the whole conference proceedings, you need to cite and reference the whole proceedings.

If the proceedings have been edited – the first element will be the editor. If there is no editor, use the organisation responsible for the conference instead (e.g. British Crop Protection Council).

Titles of conference proceedings are often very long. Titles usually include the date and location of the conference.

Citation

(Henten et al., 2009)

Reference

Author/Editor. ed (if applicable). Year. Title of conference including place and full dates. Place of publication: Publisher.

Henten, E.J. van, Goense, E. and Lokhorst, C. eds. 2009. Precision agriculture ’09: papers presented at the 7th European Conference on Precision Agriculture Wageningen, the Netherlands 6-8 July 2009. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Email me this example

Dictionary

Dictionaries often contain a long list of individuals who have collaborated on the work. As the list is often too long to include it is acceptable to cite dictionaries by the title only. However, where there are only a few named individuals, follow the normal referencing rules for printed sources.

Citation

Citation where only a few individuals are named:

(Blood and Studdert, 1988)

Citation where the list of collaborators is too long to include:

(Collins dictionary of business, 2005)

Reference

Reference where only a few individuals are named:

Author Date. Title. Edition (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.

Blood, D.C. and Studdert, V.P. 1988. Bailliére’s comprehensive veterinary dictionary.  London: Bailliére Tindall.

Reference where the list of collaborators is too long to include:

Title. Date. Edition (if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.

Collins dictionary of business. 2005. 3rd ed. Glasgow: Collins.

Email me this example

Dissertation
DVD

See also Television / radio programme

Audiovisual materials follow the normal rules. The only exception to this is that the media (eg. DVD) needs to be stated in square brackets, after the title. The "author" is the organisation responsible for the programme. As usual, where there is no author or organisation given, use Anon.

Citation

(Anon, 2006)

Reference

Author. Date. Title. [Description of media]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Anon2006. The apprentice: leadership and management. [DVD] London: Freemantle Media.

Email me this example

E-book

See also Book - chapter in edited book (print and online that have full publication details) or Book with an editor (print and online that have full publication details) or Book with author (print and online that have full publication details)

E-books that have full publication details (including publisher and place of publication) should be referenced as print books. NO URL/webpage link is required. Reference as if viewing a print book.

For e-books without full publisher details reference as an internet page.

Email me this example

Electronic Journal

See also Journal article (online) different to print or Journal article (where the print and online content is exactly the same)

Where content and layout in the printed and online journals is exactly the same - reference as print, no URL/web address is required.

For articles which are only available online ot which differ from the print version - you will need to add publisher details and URL/web address

Email me this example

Encyclopaedia - Online only

 If an author is listed (you may have to search hard for it) use it – if not use Anon.

Citation

(Milstein, 2017)

Reference

References include:  Author. Year. Title of article. In: Title of encyclopaedia. [Online].  Publisher.  Available from: url [Date accessed].

Milstein, R.L. 2017. Bacteriology. In: Magill’s medical guide. [Online]. EBSCO. Available from: https://hau.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89093355&site=eds-live&scope=site  [Accessed 28 June 2017].

Email me this example

Encyclopaedia - Print

You should cite only the article you have read – just as you would a chapter in an edited book. If an author is listed (you may have to search hard for it) use it – if not use Anon. If it is a multi-volume work remember to include the volume number. Don’t forget the page numbers.

Citation

(Sims, 1994)

Reference

Author. Date. Title of article. In: Title of encyclopaedia.Volume number.  Place of publication: Publisher. pp. page numbers.

Sims, J.T. 1994. Animal waste management. In: Encyclopaedia of agricultural science. Volume 1. Kidlington: Academic Press. pp. 185-201.

Email me this example

Engineering Software

CES EduPack Materials datasets 

 

Citation

  • (Granta Design, 2015)

 

Reference

  • Author. Year.  Software - Section. [Online]. Publisher. Available from: url [Accessed date].

     

    Granta Design. 2015. CES EduPack Software—Material Level 2. [Online] Grantadesign.com. Available at: http://www.grantadesign.com/education/datasheets/alumlevel2.htm [Accessed 15 May 2015].

 

Email me this example

EU Regulation (online)

EU regulations deviate from the normal rules for referencing in that there is no “author”.  The title, which can be very long, includes the institution (Commission) , the form (Regulation), the treaty (EU), the unique number, the date of enactment (in full) and a description of the treaty.  All of this information is readily available on the regulations.

Citation

(Commission Regulation (EU) No 432/2012)

Reference

Title. [On-line]. Name of database – including series (usually L) and volume number (listed in top right hand corner of the regulations). Available from: url. [Accessed date].

Commission Regulation (EU) No 432/2012 of 16 May 2012 establishing a list of permitted health claims made on foods, other than those referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and health. [Online]. Official Journal of the European Union L136/1. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:136:0001:0040:en:PDF

 [Accessed 25th July 2013].

Email me this example

Forums/Discussion Lists

If students are referencing an individual posting to a discussion list:

Author (of posting). Year. Title of thread. Date of posting. [Online]. "Publisher". Available from: url. [Accessed date].

If referencing an entire thread:

Name of forum. Year of last posting. Title of thread. [Online]. "Publisher". Available from: url. [Accessed date].

Citation

Individual posting:

(Grumpy old man, 2008)

Whole thread:

(UK Rivers Guidebook, 2008)

Reference

Referencing an individual posting to a discussion list:

Author (of posting). Year. Title of thread. Date of posting. [Online]. "Publisher". Available from: url. [Accessed date].

Grumpy old man. 2008. Who else is listening and why? April 30. [Online]. UK Rivers Guidebook. Available from: http://www.ukriversguidebook.co.uk/forum/viewtopic.php?t=36522&start=0#p286260 [Accessed 6 June 2013].

Referencing an entire thread:

Name of forum. Year of last posting. Title of thread. [Online]. "Publisher". Available from: url. [Accessed date].

UK Rivers Guidebook Forum. 2008. Who else is listening and why? [Online]. UK Rivers Guidebook. Available from: http://www.ukriversguidebook.co.uk/forum/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=36522&sid=739c5db4bdfea6027858e79c2e683117 [Accessed 6 June 2013].

Email me this example

Google Earth Images

No fixed url for Google Earth therefore use homepage

Citation

(Google Earth, 2009)

Reference

References include: Google Earth. Year. Image details - location, co-ordinates, elevation. [Online]. Publisher. Available from: url [Accessed date].

e.g. Google Earth 5.0. 2009. Leeds University, 53°48'28.60"N, 1°33'11.95"W, elev 63km.[Online]. Google Earth. Available from: http://code.google.com/apis/earth [Accessed 9 February 2009].

Email me this example

Google Maps

See also Map

Citation

(Google Maps, 2013)

Reference

Google Maps. 2013. Harper Adams Campus. [Online]. Google Maps. Available at: https://www.google.co.uk/maps/place/Harper+Adams+University/@52.779417,-2.4294367,17z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x487a8744c3955d2d:0x903b0fd06d1cd527!8m2!3d52.779417!4d-2.427248 [Accessed 13 April 2013].

Email me this example

Government publications

See entries under individual types of publication.

Email me this example

Government Web Pages (Gov.UK) - With Department

A page on the Gov.UK website that does stipulate a government department

Citation

(DEFRA and APHA, 2017)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. [Online]. Publisher.  Available from: URL [Accessed date].

DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) and APHA (Animal & Plant Health Agency). 2017. Animal diseases: international and UK monitoring. [Online]. UK Government. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/animal-diseases-international-monitoring [Accessed 25 July 2017].

Email me this example

Government Web Pages (Gov.UK) - Without Department

A page on the Gov.UK website that does not stipulate a government department

Citation

(UK Government, 2017)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. [Online]. Publisher.  Available from: URL [Accessed date].

UK (United Kingdom) Government. 2017. Bringing your pet dog, cat or ferret to the UK. [Online]. UK Government. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/take-pet-abroad [Accessed 25 July 2017].

Email me this example

Hansard Debate (Online)

Reference as a print document, without the URL or [Online].

Hansard debates deviate from normal referencing rules in that there is no “author”. The title contains the name of the house, the date and the topic.

Citation

(House of Commons Hansard Debates 19 June 2008)

Reference

Title (citing name of house Hansard Debates and date in full. Topic.) Vol number c-column number. [Online]. Name of database. Available from: url. [Accessed date].

House of Commons Hansard Debates 19 June 2008. Eco-towns. 477 c1095. [Online]. UK Parliament. Available from:http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmhansrd/cm080619/debtext/80619-0006.htm#column_1095 [Accessed 15 July 2009]

Email me this example

House of Commons and House of Lords papers (in print)

The “author element” is always Great Britain. Parliament.  The 'house' and committee (if any) responsible for the paper follow the date. Include the House of Commons/Lords serial number and session date.

Citation

(GB. Parliament, 2013)

Reference

Author . Year. Name of “house”. Committee (if any). Title. (House of Lords/Commons serial number – including dates of parliamentary session). Place of publication: Publisher.

GB (Great Britain). Parliament. 2013. House of Lords. European Union Committee. The effectiveness of EU research and innovation proposals: 15th report of session 2012-13. (HL 2012-13 162). London: The Stationery Office.

Email me this example

House of Commons and House of Lords papers (online)

The “author element” is always Great Britain. Parliament.  The “house” and committee (if any) responsible for the paper follow the date. Include the House of Commons/Lords serial number and session date.

If you read the papers online, reference as a print document, without the URL or [Online].

Citation

(GB. Parliament, 2007)

Reference

Author. Year. Name of “house”. Committee (if any). Title. (House of Lords/Commons serial number – including dates of parliamentary session). Place of Publication: Publisher.

GB (Great Britain). Parliament. 2007. House of Commons. Northern Ireland Affairs Committee. Tourism in Northern Ireland and its economic impact and benefits: Government response to the committee’s third report of session 2006-07. (HC 2006-2007 545). London: The Stationery Office.

Email me this example

House of Commons Library Briefing Paper

House of Commons Library briefing papers are research publications produced by UK Houses of Parliament Libraries to inform Members of the House of Commons and House of Lords. They will be clearly marked as a briefing paper and include a briefing paper number.

Citation

(Baker, 2017)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of paper. Organisation/department name briefing paper number. Place of publication: Publisher  

Baker, C. 2017. Accident and emergency statistics: demand, performance and pressure. House of Commons Library Briefing Paper no. 6964. London: House of Commons Library. 

Email me this example

House of Commons Standard Note

A series of Government reports - should be referenced as an internet page

Citation

(Thompson and Harari, 2013)

Reference

Author. Date. Title and report name and number . [Online]. Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Thompson, G. and Harari, D. 2013. The economic impact of EU membership on the UK. [Online]. House of Commons. Available from: http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN06730/SN06730.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2015].

Email me this example

International Standard (print and online)

See also British Standard (print and online)

The 'author' for international standards is International Organisation for Standardisation. The title should include the ISO number.

Citation

(Organisation for Standardisation, 2004)

Reference

Author. Date. Title including ISO number. Place of publication: Publisher.

International Organisation for Standardisation. 2004. ISO 14001:2004: Environmental management systems – requirements with guidance for use.Geneva: ISO

Email me this example

Internet page

If there is no author given, use the company or the organisation responsible for the page. You can usually find details of the company or organisation within the homepage web address. This element should not be abbreviated. For the 'publisher' element, use the company or organisation responsible for the page, this may, therefore be the same as the author. You can abbreviate here.  Internet pages follow the normal rules for on-line sources.

Gov.UK - see Government Web Pages

Citation

(Forestry Commission, 2011)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. [Online]. “Publisher”. Available from:url [Accessed date].

Forestry Commission. 2011. National forest inventory woodland area statistics for Great Britain. [Online]. Forestry Commission. Available from: http://www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/NFI_GB_woodland_area_stats_2010_FINAL.pdf/$FILE/NFI_GB_woodland_area_stats_2010_FINAL.pdf  [Accessed 25 July 2013].

Email me this example

Journal article (no volume/issue number)

See also Journal article (online only) or Journal article (where the print and online content is exactly the same)

Sometimes, journals do not include details of the volume and issue number - you can then use the publication date instead.

Citation

(Handley, 2010)

Reference

Author. Date. Title of article. Title of journal, date, pp. page numbers.

e.g. Handley, L. 2010. Follow the leaders. Marketing Week, 22 July, pp.14-18.

Email me this example

Journal article (online only)

For a journal article only published online, additional information is required. Online only journals sometimes do not have page numbers, omit them if this is the case.

Citation

(Skamoardonis et al., 2012)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number/Article ID (issue number if available), pp. page numbers if available. [Online]. Publisher. Available from: url  [Date accessed].

Skampardonis, V., Satiraki, S., Kostcules, P. and Leontides, L. 2012. Factors associated with the occurance and level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish herds. BMC Veterinary Research. 8 (1). [Online]. BMC. Available from: http://bmcvetres.biocentral.com/articles/10.1186/1746-6148-8-228 [Accessed 12 August 2015].

Email me this example

Journal article (online) - In press

You may occasionally see an article online before it is formally published in a particular issue of a journal. These articles are known as being “in press”. When citing and referencing such articles, state in press, in brackets, after the author. There will not be a volume or issue number. For the "publisher" element, use the database or organisation responsible for the internet page on which you found the article.

Citation

(Tristan and Morris, in press)

Reference

Author. (in press). Article title. Journal title [Online] Name of database. Available from: url [Accessed date].

Trifunac, M.D. (in press). The role of strong motion rotations in the response of structures near earthquake faults. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. [On-line]. ScienceDirect. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com [Accessed 13 February 2008].

Email me this example

Journal article (online) different to print

Examples being FWI, Grocer Online and The Farmer's Guardian Online which are all different to the print titles.

Citation

(Casswell, 2014)

Reference

Casswell, L. 2014. Disease pressure alert for winter wheat. Farmers Weekly Interactive, 14 January. [Online]. FWI.  Available from: http://www.fwi.co.uk/arable/disease-pressure-alert-for-winter-wheat.htm [Accessed on 24 June 2015].

Email me this example

Journal article (online) that uses an article number

You may occasionally see an online article that has an article number rather than an issue number and page numbers

Citation

(Boywer et al., 2020)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of article. Title of journal, Volume number, article no. article number.

 

Bowyer, P.H., El-Haroun, E.R., Salim, H.S. and Davies, S.J. 2020. Benefits of a commercial solid-state fermentation (SSF) product on growth performance, feed efficiency and gut morphology of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed different UK lupin meal cultivars. Aquaculture, 523, article no. 735192.

Email me this example

Journal article (where the print and online content is exactly the same)

See also Journal article (online only)

An online journal article is referenced the same as a print copy when the content is the same. There is no need to add online details.

Citation

(Manning and Soon, 2013)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (issue number), pp. page numbers.

Manning, L. and Soon, J.M. 2013. GAP framework for fresh produce supply. British Food Journal, 115 (6), pp.796-820.

Email me this example

Journal article with no author

For articles without an author use the name of the publication (in italics) in place of the author’s name. You do not need to repeat the publication’s name later in the reference

Citation

(Dairy Farmer, 2013)

Reference

Name of Publication. Year. Title of article. Volume number (issue number), pp. page numbers.

Dairy Farmer. 2013. Breeding cows that will make more from grass. 60 (6), pp.38-40.

Email me this example

Law report (print and online)

If you read the Law report/case law online, reference it as a print document, without the URL or [Online].

The first element in the reference is the names of the parties involved written in italics. This is followed by the year in brackets. There is a difference between bracket styles – be careful to transcribe the bracket style used in your source material –  i.e. if it uses round brackets, so should you, in the example below square brackets were used.  The accepted abbreviation for the name of the report follows with the page number. Remember - use italics for names of parties but not date and law report code/series.

Citation

Name of case. Year in brackets (copy style from the source material)

Scottish & Newcastle Breweries plc v Secretary of State for the Environment [1992]

Reference

References to print and online law reports include: Name of case. Year in brackets (copy the style from the source material); abbreviated details of where the report came from (i.e. the law report series) page number

e.g. Scottish & Newcastle Breweries plc v Secretary of State for the Environment [1992] 2PLR 147

Email me this example

Learning Hub (Moodle) - source viewed on the VLE

If you access a source within the Learning Hub which is published elsewhere e.g. book chapters, e-books, journal articles and internet pages, follow the guidance given in the appropriate section of this guide. You do not need to acknowledge that you viewed the source from the Learning Hub.

If the item only appears on the Learning Hub e.g. assignment briefs and lecture notes, follow the format given here.

Citation

(Harper Adams University, 2014)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. [On-line]. Module title & number.  Available from: url [Accessed date].

Harper Adams University. 2014. Engineering projects risk assessment record sheet. [Online]. Engineering Individual Design Project E7007.  Available from:  http://hub.harper-adams.ac.uk/moodle [Accessed 3 September 2014].

Email me this example

Lecture notes

See also Learning Hub (Moodle) - source viewed on the VLE

Only use lecture notes if your lecturer has specifically said this is permissible. Reference as a Learning Hub item

Email me this example

See entries under individual types of publication.

Email me this example

Reference as an online image

Email me this example

Map created using online mapping software

References and citations to maps created using online mapping software such as Digimap, Google Maps or Magic follow the normal rules for on-line sources. For the 'author' element use the organisation responsible for the original map (usually Ordnance Survey - use the organisation who has copyright of the map). Use a description of the map as your title' – in the example we have used the postcode. Include the scale after your title.

Citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2008)

Reference

Author/Organisation responsible for original map. Date. Title of map, scale. [Online]. Name of database. Available from: url [Accessed date].

Ordnance Survey. 2008. Postcode TF10 8NB, 1:1900. [Online]. Digimap. Available from: http://digimap.edina.ac.uk [Accessed 27 August 2008].

Email me this example

Market/consumer report (print)

If your report includes an editor, reference as an edited book. (Key Note reports usually include an editor). Otherwise use the company responsible for the report as the author.

Citation

With editor: (Tutt, 2012)

Without editor: (IGD, 2008)

Reference

Reference with editor: 

Editor. ed. Year. Title. Edition ( if not 1st). Place of publication: Publisher.

Tutt, L. ed. 2012. Milk and dairy products. 26th ed. Teddington: Key Note.

Reference without editor:

Company responsible for the report. Date. Title. Edition, if not the 1st. Place of publication: Publisher.

e.g. IGD (Institute of Grocery Distribution). 2008. UK grocery retail outlook. Watford: IGD.

Email me this example

Market/consumer report and market information (Online)

Online reports such as those provided by Mintel and Keynote and Euromonitor, follow the normal rules for referencing online material.

Citation

(Mintel, 2013)

(Keynote, 2014)

(Passport, 2009)

Reference

Author/editor. Year. Title. [Online]. Name of database. Available from: url [Accessed date].

Mintel. 2013. Pizza – UK – July 2013. [Online]. Mintel. Available from: http://academic.mintel.com  [Accessed 25 July 2013].

Keynote. 2014. Activity holidays market report 2014. [Online]. Keynote. Available from: http://www.keynote.co.uk [Accessed 31 August 2014].

Passport. 2009. Could women save the day for beer consumption in the UK? [Online]. Euromonitor. Available from: http://www.portal.euromonitor.com [Accessed 29 April 2014].

Email me this example

Mobile phone app

Citation

(Jenkins, 2010)

Reference

Author / Developer. Date. Title of app. Version (if applicable). [Mobile phone app.]. "Publisher". Available from: url or distributor name. [Accessed date].

e.g. Jenkins, J. 2010. Enjoy Snowdonia - Mwynhau Eyri. Version 1.5.0. [Mobile phone app.]. Snowdonia National Park. Available from:http://itunes.apple.com/gb/app/id445357614?mt=8&ls=1  [Accessed 5 December 2011]

Email me this example

Newspaper (online)

As online newspaper articles can differ from the print source or may include enhanced content eg multimedia, additional information is required.

Citation

(Wallop, 2009)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of article. Title of newspaper, date, pp. page numbers (if available). [Online]. Name of database/website. Available from: url [Accessed date].

Wallop, H. 2009. Waitrose brings out budget range for recession-hit middle classes. The Telegraph, 6 March. [Online]. Telegraph. Available from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/4948869/Waitrose-brings-out-budget-range-for-recession-hit-middle-classes.html [Accessed 17 July 2012].

Email me this example

Newspaper article (print)

Citation

(Butler, 2014)

Reference

Author. Year. Title of article. Title of newspaper, date, pp. page numbers.

Butler, S. 2014. All aboard the new consumer express. The Guardian, 15 July, p. 23.

Email me this example

Newspaper article with no author

For articles without an author use the name of the publication (in italics) in place of the author’s name. You do not need to repeat the publication’s name later in the reference.

Citation

(Times, 2005)

Reference

Name of publication. Year. Title of article. Volume/issue or date, pp. page numbers.

Times. 2005. Corporate manslaughter: responses from the legal profession. 8 September, p.4.

Email me this example

Non-English Language material

Please check with your tutor before using non-English language sources.

References to non-English language material should follow the normal rules for referencing. Titles should appear first in the original (source) language. An English translation should follow in square brackets. All other elements of the reference should appear in English.

Where the source language has specific rules on capitalisation (e.g. German where all nouns are capitalised) these rules should be followed even if they differ from the normal rules for referencing.

Where the source language does not use the Roman alphabet (e.g. Chinese, Arabic) information for the references should be transliterated into the Roman alphabet.

Citation

non-English language books:

(Schicht-Tinbergen, 1995)

non-English language print journals:

(Thurfjell, 1975)

non-English language internet pages:

(PCBS, 2009)

Reference

non-English language book:

Schicht-Tinbergen, M. 1995. Der Igel Patient [The hedgehog patient]. Jena: Gustav Fisher

non-English language print journals:

Thurfjell, W. 1975. Vart hav varan doctor tagit vagen? [Where has our doctor gone?] Lakartidningen 72, p.789

non-English language internet pages:

PCBS (Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics). 2009. Al-ahwal al-manakheyeh fe al-aradi al-filisteniya: al-taqreer al-sanawi 2008 [Meteorological conditions in the Palestinian territory: annual report 2008]. [Online]. PCBS. Available from: http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Portals/_PCBS/Downloads/book1576.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2012]

Email me this example

Online Farm (virtual farm) Data

References to Online Farm data follow the normal rules for online sources.  Where there is no author stated use Harper Adams University.  Harper Adams University is the database name.

Citation

(Harper Adams University, 2013)

Reference

Author. Year. Title. [Online]. Name of Database. Available from:url. [Accessed date].

Harper Adams University. 2013. Milk monitor April 2013. [Online]. Harper Adams University. Available from : https://portal.harper-adams.ac.uk/VirtualFarm/VFLibrary/Milk%20Monitor%20April%202013.pdf  [Accessed 27 August 2013].

Email me this example

Ordnance Survey map

See also Map created using online mapping software

Ordnance survey maps follow the normal rules for printed material. The 'author' is Ordnance Survey.

Citation

(Ordnance Survey, 2000)

Reference

Author. Date. Title, Scale. Place of publication: Publisher.

e.g. Ordnance Survey. 2000. Stafford & Telford, Ironbridge, sheet 127, 1:50,000.Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

Email me this example

Pamphlet

Pamphlets are often produced by companies and therefore often do not give an author. If this is the case use the company or organisation in the place of the author.

Citation

(HGCA, 2009)

Reference

Reference: Author. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Reference:  HGCA (Home-Grown Cereals Authority). 2009. Managing oilseed rape canopies for yield. London: Home-Grown Cereals Authority.

Email me this example

Patent (print and online)

References should include inventor(s), date, title and patent number – there is no need to give publishing information.

Citation

(Bloom et al., 2006)

Reference

Reference for a printed patent:

Inventor. Date. Title. Patent number.

e.g. Bloom, D., Moore, N.B. and Levay, R. 2006. Tractor with improved valve system. GB 2413816B.

Reference for an Online patent:

Inventor. Date. Title. Patent number [Online]. Name of database. Available from: url [Accessed date].

e.g. Bloom, D., Moore, N.B. and Levay, R. 2006. Tractor with improved valve system. GB 2413816B [Online]. Espacenet. Available from:http://gb.espacenet.com/ [Accessed 16 July 2008].

Email me this example

Personal communication (conversation/letter/email etc.)

These should not be included in a list of references – as the reader cannot refer back to the source. You should identify the person with whom you have communicated in the text only followed by Pers. Comm. (short for personal communication). You should also include full details of why their contribution is credible and significant.

Citation

The wet weather in August 2008 meant that the cereal harvest was delayed and the yield reduced (Smith, 2008. Pers Comm. Mr C. Smith is the Technical Manager of Midlands Grain Ltd.)

Reference

Should not be included in the list of references

Email me this example

Photograph (print and online)

It can be difficult to obtain all the information ideally needed for references to photographs. It is important however to include as much information as possible. Therefore if the photograph is untitled, include a description as the “title”; if the photographer is unknown, include the organisation from whom the photograph was obtained, as 'author', if the date is unknown use not dated. 

NB. when using photographs please ensure that you have authorisation from the photographer to use the photograph. Use databases like flickr which have copyright cleared photographs under the creative commons licence. If you are unsure please come and see us on the enquiry desk.

If you have taken the photograph yourself include the words Source: author's own beneath the photo. As this is your own work, you do not add to your references.

If you use an unpublished photograph not taken by yourself include the words Source: author’s name, unpublished beneath the photo.  As this is unpublished, you should not include in your reference list.

Citation

Citation for a printed photograph:

(Sillitoe, 2007)

Citation for a photograph from an online source:

(Odalaigh, 2008)

Reference

Reference for a printed photograph:

Photographer. Date. Title/Description [Photograph]. Place of publication: Publisher.

e.g. Sillitoe, D. 2007. A vet at work [Photograph]. London: The Guardian.

Reference for an photograph from an online source:

Photographer. Date. Title [Online photograph]. Name of database. Available from: url. [Accessed date].

e.g. Odalaigh. 2008. John Deere 2130 tractor with bucket [Online photograph]. Flickr. Available from www.flickr.com/photos/odalaigh/2487442988/. [Accessed 18 July 2008].

Email me this example

Planning Application

The 'author' element should include the body responsible for considering the application. The format of the reference follows the normal rules for chapters in edited books. The “chapter” title (not in italics) will be the name of the planning application including a code if relevant.  The publication title (in italics) will be the document in which the planning application was printed.

Citation

(Stafford Borough Council, 2006)

Reference

Name of relevant body. Date. Title of application including any reference numbers. In: Name of relevant body. Title of document. Place of meeting: Organisation responsible. pp. page numbers (if relevant).

Stafford Borough Council. 2006. Applications for consideration: Application 05/05121/FUL. In: Stafford Borough Council Development Control Committee Wednesday 25th January 2006. Stafford: Stafford Borough Council. pp. 9-27.

Email me this example

Podcast

Podcasts mainly follow the normal rules for on-line sources. Your reference needs to show they are a podcast. Therefore after the title enter 'Podcast' in square brackets.

Citation

(Hopkin, 2008)

Reference

Author. Date. Title. [Podcast]. Name of database. Available from: url [Accessed date].

Hopkin, K. 2008. The mythical daily water requirement. [Podcast]. ScientificAmerican. Available from: www.sciam.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=0BD1CF72-E411-2EE5-A4CDEE3447E81C93 [Accessed 13 January 2009].

Email me this example

Postnote

A series of Government reports - should be referenced as an internet page

Citation

(POST, 2010)

Reference

Author. Date. Title . [Online]. Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

POST (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology). 2010. EU fisheries management . [Online]. UK Parliament . Available from: http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/postpn357-eu-fisheries-management.pdf [Accessed 15 November 2014].

Email me this example

Radio programme
SAE technical paper

Although SAE technical papers are conference papers, each paper is assigned an SAE paper number, and is published independently.  References to SAE papers deviate from the normal rules for referencing conference papers.

Conference details are available from the SAE Technical Papers website at http://papers.sae.org/. Enter the SAE number in the search box in the top right hand corner of the webpage.

Citation

(Nystrom, 2010)

Reference

Author. Date. Title including conference details and paper number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Nystrom, G.A. 2010. Analysis of multi-vehicle rear-end accidents. Paper no. 2010-01-0055 Paper presented at SAE 2010 World Congress & Exhibition, April 2010.Warrendale: SAE International

Email me this example

Secondary referencing

This is the practice of referring to a publication you have not actually seen yourself – but which has been cited in a publication you have seen.  You should make every effort to read the original source. If this is not possible, it is important that you make it clear exactly what you have read. You need to do this in the text by stating X (date) cited Y (date) ... where X is the source you have read and Y is the secondary reference e.g. Sainsbury (1999) cited Thorp and Maxwell (1993) ...  You should only list the source you have read in your reference list.

Email me this example

Standard Note
Statutes

No reference details available - please contact the Library help desk.

Statutory Instrument (print and online)

If you read a Statutory Instrument online, reference it as a print document, without the URL or [Online].

Citation

(Milk Marketing Board (Dissolution) Order 2002)

Reference

Reference: Name of Statutory Instrument Order date, SI date/SI number

Milk Marketing Board (Dissolution) Order 2002,SI 2002/128

Email me this example

Television / radio programme

The 'author' is the organisation responsible for the programme. Entries should end with the date and time the programme was broadcast.

Citation

(BBC, 2006)

Reference

Author. Date. Title. Country: Channel, date of broadcast, time of broadcast.

e.g. BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). 2006. Countryfile. UK: BBC1, 12 August, 11.00a.m.

Email me this example

Thesis and dissertation

Theses follow the normal rules for printed materials. The title is often very long, and should include the level (e.g. MSc, PhD) of the thesis. The publisher will be the awarding university.

Citation

(Short, 2013)

 

(Kuhl, 2017

Reference

Author. Year. Title. Level of degree. Place of publication: Publisher.

 

Short, H.J. 2013. A report looking into the development of eco homes within the UK over the last ten years: honours research project  submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the BSc (Honours) Degree in Rural Enterprise and Land Management. Newport: Harper Adams University.

 

Kuhl, C. 2017. An investigation of pedigree dog breeding and ownership in the UK : experiences and opinions of veterinary surgeons, pedigree dog breeders and dog owners. PhD thesis. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.

Email me this example

Translations

References to translated resources should include English language titles only – not titles in the original language. Follow the rules for referencing the equivalent non-translated sources. If a translator is named include details of the translator after the title.

Citation

(Morozov, 1977)

Reference

Author. Date. Title (in English). Translated by (if stated). Place of publication: Publisher.

e.g. Morozov, V. 1977. Soviet agriculture. Translated by Inna Medova. Moscow: Progress Publications.

Email me this example

Twitter

Citation

(Preston, 2014)

Reference

Author. Date the page was last updated. Day & month message was posted. [Online]. Twitter. Available from: URL [Date accessed].

Preston, R. 2014. 10 August. [Online]. Twitter. Available from: https://twitter.com/Preston [Accessed 19 August 2014].

Email me this example

Unpublished material

See also Journal article (online) - In press or Personal communication (conversation/letter/email etc.)

See Personal communication and In press journal articles on p.4 of the print guide

Email me this example

Video online

References to online videos follow the normal rules for referencing online sources. Include [Online video] after the title of the video.

Citation

(Atkins, 2010)

Reference

Author / Organisation responsible for the video. Date. Title. [Online video]. Name of database. Available from: url. [Accessed date].

e.g. Atkins, V. 2011. Agriculture, trade and obesity prevention. [Online video]. Vimeo. Available from: http://vimeo.com/25254110. [Accessed 3 August 2011].

Email me this example

YouTube

Cookies on the Harper Adams University website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on the website. However, you can change your cookie settings at any time.