Skip to main content
Harper Adams University logo


    Food fraud, food crime and illicit behaviour


    This body of work reflects on food crime and illicit behaviour in food supply chains.


    Criminal activity associated with the food supply chain is as ancient as it is contemporary. This work, derived from collaboration with many researchers, is fast evolving as a research theme and has significant value for the regulators and the food industry in assisting them to mitigate illicit activity in food supply chains.


    1. Soon, J.M., Manning, L. and Smith, R. (2019) Advancing understanding of pinchpoints and crime prevention in the food supply chain, Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 21(1)

    2. Zhu, X., Huang, I.Y and Manning, L. (2018). The role of media reporting in food safety governance in China: a dairy case study, Food Control 96, 165-179

    3. Soon, J.M and Manning, L (2018), Food Smuggling and trafficking: the key factors of influence, Trends in Food Science and Technology,81, 132-138

    4. Manning, L. (2018) Let them eat cake: European austerity, food insecurity and food fraud. EuropeNow

    5. Manning, L. (forthcoming) Food supply chain fraud: the economic environmental and socio-political consequences in D. Barling ed (2018) Advances in Food Security and Sustainability Volume 3 (London: Academic Press).

    6. Manning L. (2018) Organisational sub-cultures: their influence on food safety and food integrity management. IAFP Conference. Cardiff Met University 26.09.18

    7. Manning L.(2018). Food crime: implementing effective countermeasures. Identifying, Disrupting, and Preventing Food Crime: Working in Partnership to Build the Best Food Future Possible. Public Policy Exchange, London. 12th July 2018

    8. Kowalska, A., Soon, J.M., and Manning, L. (2018), A study on adulteration in cereals and bakery products from Poland including a review of definitions Food Control, 92, 348-356

    9. Manning, L (2018) Food Integrity Management 18thApril 2018 Food Sure Conference Amsterdam

    10. Manning, L. (2018), Systems for sustainability and transparency of food supply chains, in Charis ed. Sustainable Food Systems From Agriculture to Industry, Elsevier

    11. Manning, L. and Soon, J.M. (2018) The value of product sampling in mitigating food adulteration in in Ron Hinch and Allison Gray (eds), A Handbook of Food Crime: Immoral and Illegal Practices

    12. Soon, J.M and Manning L. (2017). Whistleblowing as a countermeasure strategy against food crime, British Food Journal, 119 (12), 1-25

    13. Smith, R., Manning, L. and McElwee, G. (2017). Critiquing the Inter-Disciplinary Literature on Food-Fraud, International Journal of Rural Criminology, 3 (2) 250-270

    14. Manning, L. (2017) Guest editorial, Food integrity British Food Journal, 119 (1), 2 – 6

    15. Manning, L. (2017), Traceability: An essential mechanism to underpin food integrity – Contemporary issues in food supply chain management. Eastham et al. Goodfellow Publishers Ltd.

    16. Manning, L. Innovations in product and packaging design and development to counteract food fraud Food and Drink NPD and Innovation Summit Ricoh Arena Coventry 7th November 2017

    17. Manning, L.J and Soon, J.M (2017), Framing illicit behaviour in the rural economy, Rural Crime Seminar, University of Huddersfield 5th-6th September 2017

    18. Manning, L. (2017) Chair's presentation- Eradicating food crime, increasing consumer confidence: ensuring the integrity and safety of the UK’s food supply network post-BREXIT Thursday 9th July 2017 Strand Palace Hotel London

    19. Manning, L. Soon. J.M., Aguiar, L.K., Eastham, J.F., and Higashi, S.Y. (2017) Pressure: driving illicit behaviour in the food supply chain 12th Research Workshop on Institutions and Organisations (12th RWIO) Brazil 10-11 July 2017

    20. Manning L. (2017), Risk perceptions in the food supply chain, The Future of Food Safety Conference, University of Salford 18th May 2017

    21. Soon, J. M., Manning, L. and Smith, R. (2017). Designing countermeasures for the mitigation of fraud in the food manufacturing environment. Poster (P1 200) presented at 31st European Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) Conference. Food Science and Technology Challenges for the 21st Century - Research to Progress Society. 13 - 16 November, Sitges, Spain.

    22. Soon, J. M. and Manning, L. (2017). Cousins of food fraud? Illegal import and food trade in EU. Poster (P2 009) presented at 31st European Food Science and Technology (EFFoST) Conference. Food Science and Technology Challenges for the 21st Century - Research to Progress Society. 13 - 16 November, Sitges, Spain.

    23. Manning L. (2016), Food Fraud, policy and food chain, Current Opinions in Food Science, 10, 16-21

    24. Manning, L., Smith, R., and Soon, J.M (2016). Developing an Organizational Typology of Criminals in the Meat Supply Chain, Food Policy, 59, pp. 44-54

    25. Manning, L. Soon, J.M., and Smith, R. (2016) Developing countermeasures in the food production environment to mitigate product related fraud, 6th Counter Fraud and Forensic Accounting Conference, University of Portsmouth, 7th June 2016.

    26. Manning, L. (2015) "Determining value in the food supply chain", British Food Journal, Vol. 117 (11), 2649 - 2663

    27. Soon, J.M. and Manning, L.J. (2015). Holistic risk assessment: Enabling food policy. EFSA Journal 13(10): s1310, pg. 88.

    28. Manning, L., and Smith R., (2015) Providing authentic(ated) food: An opportunity driven framework for small food companies to engage consumers and guarantee the integrity of the food supply chain, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 16(2): 97-110

    29. Wright, M., Ibrahim, F., Manning, L., and McKellar, D, (2014), Investigation of the overall effectiveness of food sampling and surveillance in the UK by local and port health authorities, FSA Project, Available at:

    30. Manning, L., Wright, M and McKellar, D (2014) Development of risk-based sampling guidance for enforcement officers, Details available at: (Project duration 2013-2014) details not published by FSA to date.

    31. Wright, M., Manning, L. and McKellar, D. (2014) Risk and impact of internet selling of food. Research report for the Food Standards Agency, (2014), details not published by FSA to date.

    32. Manning, L and Soon, J.M, (2014) Developing systems to control food adulteration, Food Policy, 49 (1), 23-32

    33. Manning L. et al. (2006), "Ethical modelling of the food supply chain" British Food Journal, 108 (5) 358-370.  

    34. Manning L., et al. (2005), "Deliberate contamination of the food supply chain" British Food Journal, 107 (4) 225-245.  

    Cookies on the Harper Adams University website

    We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on the website. However, you can change your cookie settings at any time.