This part-time PhD study examines how modern slavery is utilised in European agri-horticultural supply chains and how safeguards, policies and procedures can be improved to deliver slave-free produce to consumers.
The supply chain of the tomato will be analysed in two countries - Spain and Italy. This will be in order to examine if different kinds of agricultural methods or governmental and cultural background have any implications in the criminal organisation’s infiltration as well as on the use of forced labour or if criminal organisations are not affected by any environmental aspects. Interviews with NGOs, Police Services, Growers, and Retailers will be undertaken to understand the measures taken to audit labour in the supply chain, which by its nature is dynamic and how policy, procedure, and safeguards products can be produced slave-free.
Harper Adams University